Identification of Patient-Related and Procedure-Related Factors Contributing to Hypoxemia in Adult Outpatients Undergoing Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

Published:October 27, 2022DOI:



      To assess which patient factors and procedure-related factors contribute to hypoxemia during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and determine whether prophylactic oropharyngeal suctioning reduces the rate of hypoxemia when compared to oropharyngeal suctioning when clinically indicated by patient's coughing or secretions.


      This was a single-site study taking place at a private practice, outpatient facility with no anesthesia trainees present. Patients were randomized to one of two groups based on birth month. After the administration of sedating medications but before the insertion of the endoscope, Group A was oropharyngeal suctioned by either the anesthesia provider or the proceduralist. Group B was oropharyngeal suctioned only when clinically indicated by coughing or visible copious secretions.


      Data were collected on a variety of patient and procedure-related factors. Associations between these factors and hypoxemia during esophagogastroduodenoscopy were analyzed using the statistical analysis system application JMP. After analysis and literature review, a protocol for prevention and treatment of hypoxemia during EGD was proposed.


      This study found that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increases the risk for hypoxemia during esophagogastroduodenoscopy. There were no other statistically significant associations between other factors and hypoxemia.


      This study highlights factors that should be evaluated in the future when considering the risk of hypoxemia during EGD. Although not statistically significant, this study's results indicated that prophylactic oropharyngeal suctioning may reduce rates of hypoxemia, as only 1 of 4 cases of hypoxemia occurred in Group A. Additionally, future studies on hypoxemia during monitored anesthesia care for EGD should include an evaluation of the impact of American Society of Anesthesiologists class, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, body mass index, obstructive sleep apnea, and opioid administration on hypoxemia risk.


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