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Combined Forced Air Warming and Warm Intravenous Fluid Strategy for Perioperative Hypothermia in Cesarean Delivery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Abstract

      Purpose

      Evaluate the effect of a combined forced-air warming (FAW) and warm intravenous fluid (IVF) modality on maternal and neonatal outcomes in cesarean delivery under neuraxial anesthesia.

      Design

      Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

      Methods

      An extensive search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and other grey literature. Only randomized controlled trials examining the combined modality on maternal temperatures were included. Risk ratio (RR), mean difference (MD), and standardized mean difference (SMD) were used to estimate outcomes with suitable effect models. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Risk of Bias and GRADE system.

      Findings

      Nine trials involving 595 patients were included. Combined strategy showed a smaller change in maternal temperature from baseline by 0.42°C (MD, –0.42; 95% CI, –0.62 to –0.22; P < .0001), higher temperature on PACU arrival (MD, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.11–0.82; P = .01), 15 minutes (MD, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.19–0.67; P = .0004) and 30 minutes after surgery (MD, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.12–0.64; P = .005). Combined strategy also reduced the incidence of hypothermia (RR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31–0.95; P = .03), and shivering (RR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28–0.58; P < .00001) with improvement in maternal comfort score (SMD; 0.38; 95% CI, 0.08–0.69; P = .01). However, there were no differences in clinical indicators of adverse neonatal outcomes. Lack of participants blinding, and substantial heterogeneity were limitations of this review.

      Conclusion

      The use of combined FAW and warm IVF is an effective strategy in mitigating perioperative hypothermia in cesarean delivery under neuraxial anesthesia.

      Keywords

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